FANDOM


Kenya b-logo

FAHARASA YA ISTIlahi

Advertising: A set of practices and techniques that draw consumer attention to products or services with the purpose of persuading them to purchase the product or service advertised.                     

Utangazaji: kundi la mazoea na mbinu zinazomvutia mnunuzi kwa bidhaa au huduma kwa lengo la kumshawishi kununua bidhaa au huduma zinazotangazwa.

Archetype:A model or ideal form of a person or object that is held to represent subsequent versions of that person or object.

Umboasili: Kielelezo cha mtu au kitu kinachoshikiliwa kuwakilisha miundo fuatilizi ya mtu au kitu hicho.

Audience:The group of consumers for whom a media text was constructed as well as anyone else who is exposed to the text.

Hadhira: Kikundi cha wanunuzi kilichoandaliwa tangazo pamoja na mtu mwingine anayeliona tangazo hilo.

Target audience: The group of people to whom a media text is specifically addressed because of a set of shared characteristics, such as age, gender, profession, class, etc.

Hadhira lengwa: ni kikundi cha watu ambao tangazo limeandaliwa haswa kwa ajili yao, kkwa kuwa wana uhusiano wa kitabia kama vile umri, jinsia, taaluma, tabaka, n.k.

Active audience: a theory that people receive and interpret media messages in the light of their own history, experience and perspective so that different groups of people may interpret the same message in different ways.

Hadhira tendi: ni nadharia kuwa watu hupokea na kufasiri matangazo kwa misingi ya historia, tajriba na mitazamoyao, kiasi kuwa makundi tofauti hufasiri ujumbe mmoja kwa njia tofauti.

Auditory learning: Learning through listening – sometimes grouped with visual learning and kinesthetic learning (see below) as one of three different types of learning.

Usomi sikivu: kusoma kwa kusikiliza- wakati mwingine huwekwa pamoja na usomi wa vielelezo na ujumi (tazama hapa chini) kama moja ya njia tatu za usomi.

Blocking Refers to a technical way of obstructing access to digital content by preventing access to the address of a piece of information -Uniform Resource Locator or URL (see World Wide Web below).

Uzuiaji: ni ufundi wa kuzuia kupata data dijitali kwa kuzuia kuingia kwa anwani ya kipande cha taarifa- tovuti.

Blog A website, usually maintained by one person, where he or she posts commentary, descriptions of events, pictures or videos. Other users can leave comments on blog entries but only the owner can edit the actual blog. Blogs are often referred to as ‘online journals’.

Blogu: wavuti, ambao kwa kawaida hutunzwa na mtu mmoja anayetuma maoni, maelezo ya matukio, picha na video. Watumiaji wengine wanaweza kutoa maoni yao, ila ni mwenyewe tu anayeweza kuhariri blogu halisi. Blogu hujulikana pia kama ‘majarida ya mtandao’.

Citizenship? (active):A member of a defined community (political, national or social).Citizenship is usually understood to comprize a set of rights (e.g. voting and access to welfare) and responsibilities (e.g.participation).

Active citizenship is the philosophy that citizens should work towards the betterment of their community through economic participation, public and volunteer work, and other such efforts to improve life for all citizens.

Uraia (tendi): mwanachama wa jamii bainifu (kisiasa, kitaifa au kijamii). Uraia hujumuisha kikundi cha haki (k.v upigaji kura na kufikia ustawi) na majukumu (k.v ushiriki). Uraia tendi ni falsafa kuwa wananchi walenge kuboresha jamii yao kwa kuchangia uchumi, kazi za umma na kujitolea, na jitihada nyinginezo za kuinua hali ya maisha kwa wananchi wote.

Citizen journalism: Refers to the ability of people, using digital media, to interact with and reshape news and content by providing their own information, comment or perspective.

Citizenship / civic 'responsibility: The state of being a member of a particular social, political or national community. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and responsibilities.

Uandishi habari wa uraia: ni uwezo wa watu, kwa kutumia mbinu dijitali, kuingiliana na kuumba upya habari na data kwa kutoa habari, maoni na mitazamo.

Citizenship/ civic responsibility:The state of being a member of a particular social, political or national community. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and responsibilities.

Uraia/kuwajibika kiraia: hali ya kuwa mwanachama wa jumuiya maalumu ya kisiasa, kitaifa au kijamii. Hali ya uraia, chini ya nadharia ya mkataba wa kijamii, huchukua haki na majukumu.

Code of ethics /code of practice/ diversity code:The set of principles of conduct for journalists, which describe the appropriate behaviour to meet the highest professional standards. Examples of such codes were established by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). While there are differences between various existing codes, most share common principles, including truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

Kanuni za maadili/kanuni za kazi/kanuni za uanuwai: mfumo wa misimamo ya kimaadili ya waandishi habari, inayoelezea tabia kubalifu ya kuafikia viwango vya juu zaidi vya kitaaluma. Baadhi ya kanuni hizi ziliandaliwa na Shirikisho la Kimataifa la Waandishi-habari (SHIKIWA). Japo kuna tofauti kati ya kanuni mbalimbali, nyingi yake zina usawa wa misimamo kama vile ukweli, umakini, kutopendelea, usawa na uwajibikaji, kwani haya yanahitajika katika kupokea habari muhimu na hatimaye kuzifikisha kwa umma.

Communication: A process whereby information is packaged, channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. All forms of communication require a sender, a message and an intended recipient. However, the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur.

Mawasiliano: namna habari huandaliwa, kuwasilishwa na kupashwa na mtumaji hadi mpokeaji kutumia njia fulani. Njia zote za mawasiliano huhitaji pawepo na mtumaji, ujumbe, na mpokeaji aliyelengwa. Hata hivyo, hailazimu kuwa mpokeaji awepo au afahamu kusudi la mtumaji kuwasiliana naye, ili mawasiliano yafanyike.

Context:Set of facts and circumstances that surround a media text and help determine its interpretation.

Muktadha: uhakika na mazingira ya habari yanayosaidia kuelekeza uelewa wake.

Contextual analysis:The pedagogical approach in MIL teaching that focuses on the study and analysis of the technical, narrative and situational contexts of media texts.

Uchambuzi wa kimuktadha: ufunzi tendi unaolenga kusoma na kuchambua miktadha ya kiufundi, masimulizi na hali za habari.

Convention:In the media context, refers to a standard or norm that acts as a rule governing behaviour.

Maagano: katika muktadha wa habari, hurejelea viwango au kaida za matendo kama sharia zinazotawala tabia.

Convergence: Refers to the ability to transfrom different kinds of information, whether voice, sound, image or text, into digital code, which is then accessible by a range of devices, from the personal computer to the mobile phone, thus creating a digital communication environment.

Kukutana: ni uwezo wa kubadili kila aina ya taarifa, iwe ni sauti, picha au matini, na kuwa ishara za kidijitali zinazoweza kufikiwa kwa kutumia vifaa mbalimbali; kutoka kwa tarakilishi binafsi hadi rununu, na kwa hivyo kutengeneza mazingira ya mawasiliano ya kidijitali.

Copyright: A set of rights granted to the author or creator of a work, to restrict others’ ability to copy, redistribute and reshape the content. Rights are frequently owned by the companies who sponsor the work rather than the creators themselves, and can be bought and sold on the market.

Haki ya kunakili: ni haki zinazopewa mwandishi, ili kuwazuia wengine kunakili, kueneza na kubadilisha yaliyomo. Haki hizi humilikiwa mara nyingi na kampuni zinazodhamini uandishi, na huweza kuuza au kununua.

Critical thinking The ability to examine and analyze information and ideas in order to understand and assess their values and assumptions, rather than simply taking propositions at face value.

Uhakiki: uwezo wa kutazama na kuchanganua habari na mawazo ili kuelewa na kukadiria thamana na dhana, badala ya kuchukulia mambo jinsi yaonekanavyo.

Culture A shared, learned and symbolic system of values, beliefs and attitudes that shapes and influences perception and behaviour –an abstract ‘mental blueprint’ or ‘mental code’. Also refers to an integrated pattern of human knowledge, beliefs, and behaviour that depends on the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning.

Tamaduni: mfumo wa maadili, imani na mielekeo inayoshirikisha, kusomwa na yenye ishara, na ambayo huunda na kuathiri mitazamo na tabia- mpango makini au ishara mawazo. Pia ni mtindo shirikishi wa maarifa ya kibinadamu, imani na tabia zilizokitwa katika fikira-ashiria na kusoma kijamii.

Curriculum A set of courses whose content is designed to provide a sequential approach to learning.

Mtalaa: mpangilio wa kozi ambazo data yake imepangwa ili kutoa mwelekeo fuatilizi wa kusoma.

Democracy A system of government where the people have final authority which they exercise directly or indirectly through their elected agents chosen in a free electoral system. It also implies freedom to exercise choice over decisions affecting the life of the individual and the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms.

Demokrasia: mfumo wa utawala ambapo watu wana mamlaka ya (au yasiyo ya) moja kwa moja kupitia kwa wajumbe waliowachagua kwa njia huru. Inaashiria pia uhuru wa kuchagua na kufanya maamuzi yanayomwathiri mtu na kumlinda katika haki na uhuru wa kimsingi.

Diversity Genuine respect for and appreciation of difference – central to the idea of pluralism. Democratic societies or systems protect and value diversity as part of human rights and respect for human dignity.

Uanuwai: kuheshimu na kuthamini kwa dhati tofauti- muhimu katika dhana ya wingi. Jamii au mifumo ya kidemokrasia hulinda na kuthamini uanuwai kama sehemu ya haki za kibinadamu na heshima kwa hadhi ya utu.

Digital literacy The ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information. It also refers to the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when presented via computers, or to a person’s ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment. Digital literacy includes the ability to read and interpret media, reproduce data and images through digital manipulation, and evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from digital environments.

Ufahamu wa dijitali: ni uwezo wa kutumia teknolojia ya dijitali, vifaa vya mawasiliano au mtando ili kutambua, kutathmini, kutumia na kuunda habari. Pia ni uwezo wa kuelewa na kutumia habari katika hali mbadala kutoka mianzo mbalimbali inapowasilishwa kupitia tarakilishi, ama uwezo wa mtu kutekeleza kazi ifaavyo katika mazingira dijitali. Ufahamu wa dijitali huhusisha uwezo wa kusoma na kufasiri habari, kuzalisha data na michoro kidijitali, pamoja na kutathmini na kutumia maarifa mapya kutokana na mazingira ya dijitali.

Discourse The treatment of a subject or issue (spoken or written) discussed at length

Diskosi/ Mazungumzo: utendeaji mada au jambo (uneni au maandishi) lililojadiliwa kwa kina.

'Editor The person responsible for the editorial side of a publication, determining the final content of a text, especially of a newspaper or magazine. This term should be clearly differentiated from media 'owner, which refers to the person or group of stakeholders who own the media company.

Mhariri: mtu anayesimamia tahariri katika toleo, kuamua nakala safi ya matini, haswa katika magazeti na majarida. Neno hili lafaa kutofautishwa vyema na wamiliki wa vyombo vya habari, na ambao ni mtu au kikundi cha washika dau wanaomiliki mashirika ya vyombo vya habari.

'Editorial 'independence

The professional freedom entrusted to editors to make editorial decisions without interference from the owner of the media outlet or any other state or non-state actors.

Uhuru wa uhariri: ni uhuru wa kitaaluma unaokabidhiwa wahariri kufanya maamuzi ya uhariri bila kuingiliwa na wamiliki wa vyombo vya habari au ikulu na walio nje ya ikulu.

Equality The idea that everyone, irrespective of age, gender, religion and ethnicity, is entitled to the same rights. It is a fundamental principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights captured in the words ‘recognition of the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world’. The idea of citizenship embraces equality issues.

Usawa: ni wazo kuwa watu wote, bila kujali umri, jinsia, dini wala kabila, wana haki sawa. Ni msimamo wa kimsingi wa Azimio la Kimataifa la Haki za Binadamu unaosawiriwa katika usemi ‘utambuzi wa hadhi asili na haki sawa za wanachama wote wa jamii ya wanadamu ni msingi wa uhuru, haki na amani duniani’. Dhana ya uraia hutambua maswala ya usawa.

Film A form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of images and sound, giving the illusion of continuous movement.

Filamu: ni aina ya utumbuizaji inayosimulia hadithi kwa kutumia picha na sauti, huku ikitoa fikra za mwendo fululizi.

'Freedom of 'expression

A fundamental human right. It is used to indicate not only the freedom of verbal speech but any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information. The freedom of the press is a corollary to this right and essential to the building and supporting of communities and civil society.

Uhuru wa kujieleza: ni haki ya kimsingi ya binadamu. Hutumika kumaanisha uneni, pamoja na tendo lolote la kutafuta, kupokea na kupashana habari. Uhuru wa wanahabari ni matokeo ya haki hii na muhimuu kwa ujenzi na kusaidia jamii na makundi ya kijamii.

'Freedom of 'information

The right of citizens to access information held by public bodies.

Uhuru wa habari: ni haki ya raia kupata habari katika mashirika ya umma.

'Freedom of 'speech

The freedom to speak freely without censorship or limitation,or both. The synonymous term freedom of expression is sometimes used to indicate not only freedom of verbal speech,but any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.

Uhuru wa kunena: ni uhuru wa kuzungumza huru bila udhibiti au mipaka au yote mawili. Kisawe chake, uhuru wa kujieleza, hutumika kumaanisha uhuru wa uneni, pamoja na tendo lolote la kutafuta, kupokea na kupashana habari, bila kujali mbinu tumika.

'Freedom of the 'press

The media in general (not just print media) being free from direct censorship or control by government – does not preclude the application of competition law to prevent monopolies, or state allocation of broadcast frequencies.

Uhuru wa wanahabari: uanahabari kijumla (siyo tu enye kuchapishwa) kuwa huru dhidi ya kudhibitiwa na serikali- haizuii matumizi ya sheria ya ushindani kuzuia uhodhi, au kutolewa kwa masafa ya mitabendi na serikali.

Gatekeeper A generic term applied to anyone who has the role of filtering ideas and information for publication or broadcasting – the internal decision-making process of relaying or withholding information from the media to the masses. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media hierarchy – from a reporter deciding which sources toinclude in a story to editors deciding which stories to print.

Mlindalango/ Bawabu: neno litumikalo kwa yeyote anayechuja mawazo na habari za kuchapishwa au kutangazwa- mbinu ya kindani ya kufanya maamuzi ya kupasha au kuzuia habari kutoka kwa vyombo vya habari hadi kwa umma. Ulindalango hutokea katika viwango vyote vya uanahabari- kuanzia kwa maripota wanapochagua asili ya habari ya kujumuisha, hadi kwa wahariri wanapoamua ni visa vipi vitachapishwa.

Genre Specific kinds of media content (e.g. entertainment, information, news, advertising, drama, etc.) Each has its own general purpose and design.

Tanzu: aina maalumu ya matini ya habari (k.v matumbuizo, habari, matangazo, drama, nk.). kila mojawapo ina dhima na umbo lake.

Global village First mentioned by Marshall McLuhan in his book The Gutenberg Galaxy, this term describes how the globe has been contracted into a village by electronic technology and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time. It has come to be identified with the Internet and theWorld Wide Web.

Kijiji tandawizi: Ilitajwa kwanza na Marshall McLuhan katika kitabu chake The Gutenberg Galaxy, kuashiria namna dunia imekuwa kama kijiji kufuatia teknolojia ya elektroniki na kasi ya kutuma ujumbe kutoka maeneo yote hadi kila eneo kwa wakati mmoja. Huhusishwa na mtandao na tovuti.

Governance Best understood as a process of governing that involves interaction between the formal institutions and those in civil society. Governance is concerned with who wields power, authority and influence, how these are used, and how policies and decisions concerning social and public life are made. Governance embraces both the institutions of government and the practices and behaviour that inhabit them.

Utawala: hueleweka vyema zaidi kama njia ya kutawala inayoshirikisha taasisi rasmi na mashirika ya kijamii. Utawala huhusishwa na ni nani mwenye mamlaka, uwezo na ushawishi, namna anavyovitumia, na namna sera na maamuzi kuhusu utangamano wa kijamii na umma yanavyoafikiwa. Utawala hutambua mashirika ya kiserikali na tabia zinazoyasheheni.

Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with aprofessional ethos acting to further the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs.

Utawala mwema: huashiriwa na uundaji sera wa wazi na unaobashirika, urasimu ulojaa maadili ya kitaaluma katika kuendeleza mema ya umma, ufanyakazi wa sheria, njia za wazi, na ushiriki mkuu wa vyama vya kijamii katika shughuli za umma.

Poor governance is characterized by arbitrary policy making, unaccountable bureaucracies, unenforced or unjust legal systems, the abuse of executive power, a civil society unengaged in public life, and widespread corruption.

Utawala mbaya: husheheni uundaji sera wa kiholela, urasimu usioelezeka, mifumo ya kisheria isiyo ya haki, matumizi mabaya ya mamlaka na halmashauri kuu, mashirika ya kijamii yasihusika na maisha ya umma, na kuenea kwingi kwa ufisadi.

Hate speech Any communication that incites hatred of a defined group of people because of their collective characteristics (ethnicity,gender, sexuality, etc.).

Matamshi ya chuki: ni mawasiliano yoyote yanayochochea uhasama kwa kikundi bainifu cha watu, kwa sababu ya sifa zao jumulishi (kabila, jinsia, nk.)

Human rights A set of entitlements and protections regarded as necessary to protect the dignity and self-worth of a human being. Such rights are usually captured in national and international documentation that articulates these rights (e.g. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, etc.). Also, the rights of groups or peoples – seeks to protect especially poor and/ormarginalized groups in society.

Haki za kibinadamu: ni mfumo wa haki na ulinzi unaochukuliwa kuwa muhimu kwa kulinda hadhi na heshima ya binadamu. Haki kama hizi aghalabu huwa katika hati za kitaifa na za kimataifa zinazofafanua haki hizi (k.m Azimio la Haki za Binadamu Ulimwenguni,, Agano la Uropa la Haki za Binadamu, na Agano la Haki za Watoto, nk.). Pia, haki za makundi au watu- hutafuta kuwalinda hasa maskini na/au makundi ya pembeni katika jamii.

''ICT ''Information and communication technology consists of all technical means used to handle information and facilitate communication, including computer and network hardware, as well as necessary software. In other words, ICT consists of Information Technology as well as telephony, broadcast media, and all types of audio and video processing and transmission. It stresses the role of communications (telephone lines and wireless signals) in modern information technology.

TEKNOHAMA: hujumuisha mbinu zote za kiufundi za kushughulikia habari na kuhamasisha mawasiliano, pamoja na tarakilishi, vifaa na programu. Teknohama hujumuisha matumizi ya simu, utangazaji habari, na aina nyinginezo za kuandaa na kupashana jumbe za sauti na video. Husisitiza wajibu wa mawasiliano (nyaya za simu na ishara zisizotumia nyaya) katika usasa wa habari na teknolojia.

Ideology A doctrine, philosophy, body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group. Can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, a way of looking at things (as in common sense and several

philosophical tendencies), or as a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society.

Itikadi: imani, falsafa na misimamo ya mtu au kikundi. Yaweza chukuliwa kuwa njozi kuu, njia ya kutazama vitu, au mseto wa mawazo yanayoenezwa na tabaka tawala katika jamii kwa watu wote wa hii jamii.

Image An iconic mental representation or picture.

Picha: taswira akilini

Indigenous or 'community 'media

Any form of media that is created and controlled by a community– either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. Community media are separate from either private (commercial) media, state-run media or public broadcast media,and media are increasingly recognized as a crucial element in a vibrant and democratic media system.

Asilia au uanahabari-jamii: aina yoyote ya uanahabari inayoundwa na kuongozwa na jamii- iwe ni jamii ya kijiografia au ya mfanano au ya nia. Uanahabari-jamii ni tofauti na uanahabari-binafsi, ya umma au ya taifa, na uanahabari unachukuliwa kuwa sehemu muhimu ya mfumo wa kidemokrasia.

Information A broad term that can cover data; knowledge derived from study, experience, or instruction; signals or symbols. In the media world, information is often used to describe knowledge of specific events or situations that has been gathered or received by communication, intelligence or news reports.

Habari: istilahi pana inayojumuisha data; maarifa yapatikanayo kwa kusoma, tajriba, au maagizo; ishara. Katika ulimwengu wa uanahabari, ni maarifa ya matukio maalum yaliyokusanywa au kupokelewa kwa mawasiliano, au taarifa.

'Information 'sources

The persons, groups and documents from which information is obtained.

Asili ya habari: watu, makundi au hati kunakopatikana habari.

'Information 'literacy

Refers to the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats.

Uelewa habari: uwezo wa kugundua habari inapohitajika na kutambua, kutathmini, kutumia vyema na kuwasilisha habari kwa njia mbadala.

Internet A global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business and government networks, of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.

Mtandao: mfumo tandawazi wa muungano wa kompyuta zinazotumika na mabilioni ya watu duniani. Ni muungao wa miungano inayojumuisha mamilioni ya mashirika binafsi na ya umma, wasomi, wafanyibiashara na serikali, katika ngazi za kitaifa na kimataifa kupitia mfumo wa kielektroniki na teknolojia.

Journalism The collecting, writing, editing and presenting of news in newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasts or the Internet.

Uanahabari: ukusanyaji, uandishi, uhariri na uwasilishaji wa taarifa katika magazeti, majarida, redio na runinga au mtandao.

Journalist A person who collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as journalism.

Mwanahabari: mtu anayekusanya na kusambaza habari kuhusu matukio, watu, mienendo na maswala. Kazi yake hutambulika kama uanahabari.

'Kinesthetic 'learning

Refers to an approach to learning that involves physical activity rather than, for example, listening to a lecture.

Usomi tendi: ni mitazamo wa usomi unaohusisha kutenda, badala ya kusikiza, kama vile, mhadhara.

Learner centred An approach to education that places the learner at the heart of the learning process. Here the needs and aspirations of individuals are placed at the centre of any learning process or programme, focusing very much on the experiences they bring to the learning situation. It embraces the notion of participation, and values thelearner’s contribution to the community of learning.

Mwanafunzi-lengi: mitazamo wa elimu unaompa mwanafunzi kipau mbele katika usomi. Hapa, mahitaji na malengo ya watu binafsi husisitizwa katika hali zote za usomi au programu, kwa kulenga sana tajriba wanazoleta katika hali ya kusoma. Inatambua dhana ya kushiriki, na kudhamini mchango wa mwanafunzi katika jumuiya ya usomi.

Library skills Competency in the use of a library.

Maarifa ya maktaba: ni uwezo wa kutumia maktaba.

Life-long learning Connected to the idea of learner-centred education. It recognizes that life does not ‘start’ and ‘stop’ after a programme of instruction within a specific time and space. Each individual is constantly learning, which makes media and information

technologies critical to sustain this kind of learning. Development of media and information literacy is not restricted to simply completing a programme, but extends beyond formal education contexts. It occurs in various settings (places of work, in

community activities, non-formal education settings, etc.).

Kusoma kwa kudumu: hulenga wazo la usomi wa mwanafunzi-lengi. Hutambua kuwa maisha hayaanzi wala kukoma baada ya programu ya maagizo kwa kipindi na mahali maalum. Kila mtu husoma kila wakati, jambo linalofanya uanahabari na teknolojia kuwa muhimu katika kudumisha aina hii ya usomi. Kuendelezwa kwa uanahabari na uelewa wa habari hakujabanwa katika kukamilisha ratiba, bali huendelea zaidi ya miktadha ya usomi rasmi. Hutokea katika mandhari mbalimbali (mahali mwa kazi, kazi za kijamii, na mazingira yasiyo rasmi, nk.).

Mainstream media

Media disseminated via the largest distribution channels, which are therefore representative of what the majority of media consumers are likely to encounter. The term also denotes media that generally reflect the prevailing currents of thought, influence

or activity.

Uanahabari mkuu: ni uanahabari unaosambazwa kupitia nyenzo kuu zaidi, na ambazo huwakilisha kile wengi wa wateja wa uanahabari hutagusana kwacho. Huashiria vilevile uanahabari unaoangazia hali zilizopo za kimawazo, ushawishi na matendo.

Marketing The process by which companies create customer interest in goods or services. Marketing generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication and business developments.

Usokeshaji: hali ambapo makampuni huibua hamu kwa mnunuzi wa bidhaa na huduma. Usokeshaji hutoa mbinu zinazoongoza uuzaji, mawasiliano na maendeleo ya kibiashara.

Mass media Media designed to be consumed by large audiences using the agencies of technology. Mass media are channels of communication through which messages flow.

Uanahabari wa halaiki: ni uanahabari unaolenga Hadhira kubwa kwa kutumia maajenti wa teknolojia. Ni njia za mawasiliano zinazopitisha ujumbe.

Media Physical objects used to communicate, or mass communication through physical objects such as radio, television, computers, film, etc. It also refers to any physical object used to communicate media messages. Media are a source of credible information in which contents are provided through an editorial process determined by journalistic values and therefore editorial accountability can be attributed to an organization or a legal

person. In more recent years the term media is often used to include new online media.

Vyombo vya habari/Midia: vifaa halisi vya mawasiliano, au uanahabari wa halaiki kupitia vifaa kama vile redio, runinga, tarakilishi, Filamu, nk. Midia ni asili ya habari kubalika ambazo data yake huhaririwa chini ya maadili ya uanahabari, na kwa hivyo uwajibikaji waweza kuelekezwa kwa shirika au mwakilishi wa kisheria. Katika miaka ya karibuni, neno midia limejumuisha midia ya mtandao.

Media content: Media produced and delivered to audiences. MIL MIL stands for media and information literacy, and refers to the essential competencies (knowledge, skills and attitude) that allow citizens to engage with media and other information providers effectively and develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socializing and becoming active citizens.

Data ya midia: Ni data inayoandaliwa na kufikishwa kwa hadhira. Midia na uelewa habari: hurejelea maarifa, ujuzi na mielekeo inayowakubalia raia kushirikiana na midia na watoa habari wengine kukuza uhakiki na usomi wa kudumu katika kutagusana na kuwa wananchi-tendi.

Media languages Conventions, formats, symbols and narrative structures that indicate the meaning of media messages to an audience. Symbolically, the language of electronic media works in much the same way as grammar works in print media.

Lugha za midia: Maagano, miundo, ishara na utaratibu wa maelezo unaobashiri maana ya jumbe za midia kwa hadhira. Kijazanda, lugha ya midia elektroniki hufanya kazi kwa njia sawa na ile ya sarufi katika uchapishaji.

Media literacy Understanding and using mass media in either an assertive or non-assertive way, including an informed and critical understanding of media, the techniques they employ and their effects. Also the ability to read, analyze, evaluate and produce

communication in a variety of media forms (e.g. television, print, radio, computers etc.). Another understanding of the term is the ability to decode, analyze, evaluate and produce communication in a variety of forms.

Uelewa wa midia: kuelewa na kutumia uanahabari wa halaiki kwa dhati au kwa njia isiyo haki, pamoja na uelewa wa uanahabari, mbinu za kiufundi zinashorikishwa na athari zake. Pia ni uwezo wa kusoma, kuchanganua, kutathmini na kutoa habari kwa njia mbalimbali (k.v runinga, uchapishaji, redio, tarakilishi, nk.).

Merchandising Activities aimed at the quick retail sale of goods using bundling, display techniques, free samples, on-the-spot demonstration, pricing, special offers, and other point-of-sale methods.

Ubidhaa:shughuli zinazolenga uchuuzi wa rejareja kwa kutumia mbinu za maonyesho, upeanaji wa sampuli, kudhihirisha, kuweka bei, matoleo maalumu, na mbinu nyinginezo za uuzaji.

Message: The information sent from a source to a receiver.

Ujumbe:habari inayotumwa kutoka chanzo fulani hadi kwa mpokeaji.

Multimedia The combined use of several media, especially for the purposes of education or entertainment. It can also mean the integration of text, sound, full– or partial–motion video or graphics in digital form.

Wingimidia: ni muungano wa midia kadhaa, na hasa kwa lengo la kufundisha au kutumbuiza. Inaweza pia kumaanisha ujumuishaji wa matini, sauti, video za mwendo kamili au usio kamili au grafiki za kidijitali.

Myth Myths represent implicit belief systems that express the fears, desires and aspirations of a culture, such as the myth of the ‘heroic journey’. In these stories, the hero – unaware of his destiny – is called upon to take up an important quest. The hero

usually passes through several stages as part of the quest, including: his ‘birth’ or beginning, becoming aware of his ‘calling’ or destiny, experiencing romance, encountering foes, receiving advice from a wise elder, and finally returning home.

Visasili: huwakilisha mifumo ya imani inayoashiria uwoga, hamu na matamanio ya mila, kama vile kisasili cha ‘safari ya kishujaa’. Katika hadithi hizi, shujaa-bila kujua hatima yake-anaitwa kwa uchunguzi muhimu. Shujaa huyu kwa kawaida hupitia hatua kadhaa kama sehemu ya utafutaji: kuzaliwa kwake au mwanzo, akitambua kuwa ‘wito’ au hatima yake, ikisheheni mapenzi, kukumbana na adui, kupokea busara kutoka kwa wazee, na hatimaye kurejea nyumbani.

Narrative The telling of a story or plot through a sequence of events. In the context of a media text, it is the coherent sequencing of events in time and space.

Masimulizi: ni kusimulia hadithi au ploti kupitia mfululizo wa matukio. Katika muktadha wa matini ya uanahabari, ni mfululizo wa matukio yenye mshikamano kiwakati na kimazingira.

News The communication of information on current events print, broadcast, Internet or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience.

Taarifa: ni uwasilishi wa habari kuhusu mambo yanayotokea kupitia uchapishaji, matangazo, mtandao au kwa njia ya mdomo kwa nafsi ya tatu au midia ya halaiki.

News media The section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. It includes print media (e.g. newspapers and magazines), broadcast media (radio and television), and increasingly, Internet-based media (e.g. World Wide Web pages and blogs).

Taarifa-midia: ni sehemu ya uanahabari wa halaiki inayojihusisha na habari zinazotokea kwa umma. Hujumuisha midia-chapishi (magazeti na majarida), midia-tangazi (redio na runinga), ikiwemo midia-mtandao (kurasa za tovuti na blogu).

New media Content organized and distributed on digital platforms.

Midia mpya: data iliyopangwa na kusambazwa kwa ulingo wa kidijitali.

Newspaper: A regularly scheduled publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive, lowgrade paper such as newsprint.

Gazeti: toleo la mara kwa mara la taarifa, habari na matangazo, na kwa kawaida huchapishwa kwa karatasi za gharama na viwango vya chini.

News values: Sometimes called news criteria, they determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet, and the attention it is given by the audience. Some of the most important news values include frequency, unexpectedness, personalization,

meaningfulness or being conflict-generated.

Ufaafu wa taarifa: pia hujulikana kama kigezo cha taarifa, hukadiria umaarufu wa hadithi kwa vyombo vya habari na umakini zitakazopewa na hadhira. Baadhi ya ufaafu wake ni umara kwa mara, kutotarajiwa, kubinafsishwa, mantiki au kuzuliwa na migongano.

Participation (civic participation)

Participation is at the heart of democracy, with its main aim to ensure that each individual can take his or her place in society and make contribution to its development. It is an important element of democratic practice and crucial to decision-making processes, considered a cornerstone of basic human rights.

Kushiriki (kwa raia): kushiriki ni uti wa Demokrasia, kwa lengo kuu la kuhakikisha kuwa kila mtu amechukua pahala pake na kuchangia kukua kwake. Ni kipengele muhimu cha mazoea ya kidemokrasia na nguzo muhimu katika hatua za kufanya maamuzi na kiini cha haki za kibinadamu.

Pluralism (media pluralism)

Characterized by a diversity of media outlets, both in terms of ownership (private, public and community) and types of media (print, radio, television and Internet). More broadly, pluralism in society is characterized by a situation in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious or social groups maintain an autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interests within the confines of a common civilization.

Mfumo wa wingi: huainishwa na uanuwai wa vyombo vya habari, yaani umiliki (binafsi, umma na jamii) na aina za midia (chapishwa, redio, runinga na mtandao). Katika jamii, mfumo wa wingi huainishwa na hali ambapo watu kutonga misingi tofauti ya kikabila, kidini au kijamii hushikilia uhuru wa kushiriki na maendeleo ya mila za kitamaduni au shauku spesheli iliyojikita katika ustaarabu wa kawaida.

Podcasts Audio and video media files that are released periodically and may be listened to podcasts on devices such as the computer? and smartphones.

Podikasti: faili-midia za sauti au video zinazotolewa baada ya muda zaweza kusikizwa kwa podikasti kwenye tarakilishi na simunadhifu.

Popular culture The totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, themes, images and other phenomena that are preferred by an informal consensus in the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid-20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Mila pendwa: ni ujumla wa mawazo, mitazamo, mielekeo, mada, picha na mambo mengineyo yanayopendelewa na makubaliano yasiyo rasmi katika njia kuu ya mila fulani, hasa mila za kimagharibi za miaka ya mapema ya karne ya 20 na njia kuu za utandawazi zinazoibuka katika miaka ya mwisho ya karne ya 20 na miaka ya mapema ya karne ya 21.

'Press: 'Print media responsible for gathering and publishing news in the form of newspapers or magazines.

Uanahabari: midia-chapishi inayowajibika na ukusanyaji na uchapishaji wa taarifa kwa njia ya magazeti au majarida.

'Print media 'Media consisting of paper and ink – reproduced in a printing process that is traditionally mechanical.

Midia-chapisha: midia inayohusisha karatasi na wino- inayotoleshwa kwa njia ya uchapishaji ambayo ni ya kimakanika tangu jadi.

Production: The process of putting together media content to make a finished media product. It can also refer to the process of creating media texts as well as the people engaged in this process.

Uzalishaji:ni njia ya kuweka pamoja data ya midia kukamilisha zao la midia. Yaweza kuwa njia ya kuunda matini ya midia pamoja na watu husika katika njia hii.

Propaganda: A form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community towards some cause or position.

Propaganda: aina ya mawasiliano yanayolenga kushawishi mielekeo ya jamii kuchukua msimamo fulani.

Public domain information: A term applied to original creative works, including poetry,

music, art, books, movies, product designs and other forms of intellectual property, such as computer programmes. Being in the public domain means the creative work can be used for any purpose the user desires. Public domain items are considered part of the collective cultural heritage of society in general, as opposed to the property of an individual.

Habari iliyo kwa umma: hurejelea kazi asilia za ubunifu, zikiwemo ushairi, muziki, sana, vitabu, sinema, na aina nyinginezo za mali-bongo, kama vile programu za tarakilishi. Kuwa kwa umma kuna maana kwamba kazi bunifu zaweza kutumika kwa malengo yoyote anayonuia mtumiaji. Habari zilizo kwa umma huchukuliwa kama sehemu ya urithi jumulishi wa kitamaduni, kinyume na mali ya mtu binafsi.

Public interest The concept of general welfare or benefit to the public as a whole, in contrast to the particular interests of a person or group. There is no agreement as to what constitutes the public interest, but the term reflects the sense that some interests pertain to everyone, regardless of their status or position, and require action to protect them.

Shauku kwa umma: dhana ya faida kwa umma kijumla, kinyume na shauku ya mtu binafsi au kikundi. Hakuna makubaliano kuhusu vipengele vya shauku kwa umma, ila katika kuashiria kuwa mivuto hii huhusisha kila mtu, licha ya nafasi au matabaka yao, na huhitaji hatua kuzilinda.

Public service media: Publicly-funded media that are often required to play a role in

supporting the public interest by providing balanced and diverse programming that is representative of the community as a whole. Public service ad A type of advertisement that addresses some aspect of the public

Midia ya utumishi kwa umma: midia inayogharamiwa na umma na hutarajiwa kushiriki katika kuunga mkono maswala ya umma kwa kutoa programu zenye usawa na uanuwai kuwakilisha jamii nzima.

Public service ad A type of advertisement that addresses some aspect of the public interest, rather than a product or brand.

Tangazo la utumishi kwa umma: ni tangazo linaloangazia kipengele cha shauku ya umma, badala ya bidhaa

Public sphere The notion of a public space in which members of society can freely exchange news, information and opinions – a place where individuals meet and exchange views on matters of common concern in public, on the basis of equality and inclusivity. The most influential modern theorist of the public sphere is Juergen

Habermas.

Tufe ya umma: fikra ya nafasi ya umma ambapo wanajamii wanaweza badilishana mawazo, habari na maoni kwa njia huru- mahali watu hukutana na kubadilishana maoni kuhusu mambo sawa yanayohusu jamii, kwa misingi ya usawa na ujumulishaji. Nadharia shawishi zaidi kuhusu tufe ya umma ni ile ya Juergen Habermas.

Racism The belief that the genetic factors which constitute race are a primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Ubaguzi wa rangi: ni imani kuwa mchango wa jeni zinazounda jamii huwa na chembechembe za kimsingi zinazoelekeza tabia na uwezo wa binadamu na kwamba tofauti za kijamii huzua ukuu asilia wa jamii husika.

Radio Communication of audible signals encoded in electromagnetic waves – transmission of programmes for the public by radio broadcast.

Redio: mawasiliano ya ishara za sauti zilizofungamanishwa na mawimbi ya sumakuumeme- uenezaji wa programu kwa umma kupitia matangazo ya redio.

Regulation (media)

Refers to attempts to control or affect the behaviour of media organizations and media actors by developing and enforcing rules and codes for their behaviour.

Udhibiti (midia):ni jitihada za kudhibiti au kuathiri tabia za mashirika ya habari na waigizaji kwa kukuza na kushurutisha utiifu wa sheria na kanuni za tabia.

Representation Processes by which a constructed media text stands for, symbolizes, describes or represents people, places, events or ideas that are real and exist outside the text. It can also mean the relationship between actual places, people, events and ideas, and media content

Uwakilishaji: njia ambazo kwazo matini-midia husimamia, kuashiria, kuelezea au kuwakilisha watu, mahali, matukio au mawazo ya kweli na kupatikana nje ya matini hiyo. Huweza kumaanisha uhusiano kati ya mahali halisi, watu, matukio na mawazo na midia-data.

Self-regulation: Rules imposed by political or economic actors on themselves. For the media, self-regulation implies respecting codes of ethics and codes of practice without interference from any governing source or institution.

Kujidhibiti:sheria zilizoamuliwa na washikadau wa kisiasa na kiuchumi kwao wenyewe. Kwa midia, kujidhibiti huashiria kuheshimu kanuni za maadili na kanuni za kazi bila kuingiliwa na utawala au mashirika mengine.

Sexism Prejudice or discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women – behaviour, conditions or attitudes that foster stereotypes of social roles based on sex.

Ubaguzi wa kijinsia: kupendelea au kubagua kwa misingi ya jinsia, na hasa kuwabagua wanawake- tabia, hali na mielekeo inayoendeleza ukariri wa majukumu ya kijamii kwa misingi ya jinsia.

Symbolism: The use of symbols, including images, concepts and archetypes, to represent aspects of reality (e.g. bad cowboys wearing black hats and good cowboys wearing white hats).

Jazanda: matumizi ya ishara, zikiwemo picha, dhana na Umboasili, kuwakilisha vipengele vya uhalisia (vijana watundu kuvalia kofia nyeusi na wangwana kuvalia kofia nyeupe)

Social networking: Online connections with people in networks surrounding a

common interest or activity. Social network activity includes

people publishing profiles that provide information about

themselves. Facebook is an example of a popular social network.

Mtagusano wa kijamii: maingiliano ya kimtandao na watu wenye nia moja. Shughuli za mtagusano wa kijamii huhusu uchapishaji wa maelezo mafupi yanayotoa habari zao. Buku-uso ni mojawapo tu ya mtagusano pendwa wa kijamii.

Software The programmes and data that give instructions to a computer

on how to handle data or operations of various kinds. Examples

range from office software that produces and manipulates data,

to software that controls the shaping and editing of images.

Programu: programu na data zinazoagiza kompyuta kuhusu jinsi ya kushughulikia data na oparesheni anuwai. Mathalani programu za ofisi zinazounda na kuendesha data, hadi programu zinazodhibiti uundaji na uhariri wa picha.

Stereotypes: A common form of media representation that uses instantly

recognized characteristics to label members of a social or cultural

group. It can have both negative and positive connotations.

Stereotaipu: muundo kawaida wa uwakilishi midia unaotumia sifa tambuliki papo hapo kutambulisha wanachama wa makundi ya kijamii au kitamaduni. Inaweza kuwa na vidokezo hasi au chanya.

Storyboard Pictorial representation of a film sequence often depicted as a series of comic-book style drawings – part of a director's preparation for a film shoot.

Hadithibodi:Uwakilishaji wa picha za filamu fululizi inayofasiriwa kuwa msururu wa buku-cheshi- sehemu ya matayarisho ya mkurugenzi wa kurekodi video.

Technology Hardware used to create and communicate with media (e.g. radios, computers, telephones, satellites, printing presses, etc.).

Teknolojia: vifaa vinavyotumika kuunda na kuwasilisha habari (redio, tarakilishi, simu, setilaiti, mashirika ya uchapishaji, nk.)

Television: The transmission of dynamic or sometimes static images, generally with accompanying sound, via electric or electromagnetic signals; the visual and audio content of such signals; and the organizations that produce and broadcast television programmes. 

Runinga: uwasilishaji wa elimumwendo au picha tuli, na kwa kawaida huwa na sauti, kupitia ishara za umeme au sumakuumeme; ishara za data taswira na data sauti; na mashirika yanayozua na kutangazwa vipindi ya runinga.

Text Media text usually refers to the individual results of media production, both written audio and video, (e.g. a TV episode, a book, an issue of a magazine or newspaper, an advertisement, etc)

Matini:matini-midia hurejelea matokeo pekee ya uzalishaji wa data taswira na data sauti (tukio runingani, kitabu, makala gazetini, tangazo, nk)

User-generated content (UGC)

Also known as consumer-generated media (CGM) and usercreated content, UGC refers to various kinds of publicly-available media content that can be produced by the users of digital media. Those consuming the content therefore also produce content.

Data zalishwi na watumiaji: huundwa na watumiaji- aina mbalimbali za data-midia zinazozalishwa na watumiaji wa uanahabari dijitali. Wanaotumia data pia huzalisha data.

Visual learning: A style of learning based on absorbing images or by watching

demonstrations.

Usomi-mtazamo: ni mbinu ya kusoma iliyokitwa katika kutazama michoro au maonyesho.

Visual media: Media that rely on images to communicate meaning (e.g.

television, film, the Internet, etc.).

Midia-mtazamo: midia inayoegemea picha kuwasilisha maana (k.v runinga, filamu, mtandao, nk.)

Web 2.0 Applications that facilitate interactivity and allow users to design

their own software features. Web 2.0 applications emphasize the

importance of collaboration and sharing.

Wavu 2.0:matumizi yanayorahisisha mwingiliano na kuruhusu watumiaji kutengeneza upekee wa programu zao. Matumizi ya wavu 2.0 husisitiza umuhimu wa kushirikiana na kushauriana.

Website A collection of web pages, images and data with a common

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (see World Wide Web below).

Wavuti: mkusanyiko wa kurasa za wavu, picha na data zenye tovuti-lingani.

Wiki A website usually maintained by more than one person, where users collaborate on content. They often have multiple interlinked pages and content including commentary, description of events, documents, etc. A wiki differs from a blog in that its content is usually updated by multiple users and a larger variety of materials can be downloaded onto it.

Wiki: wavuti inayosimamiwa na zaidi ya mtu mmoja, ambapo watumiaji hushirikiana kidata. Mara kwa mara huwa na kurasa na data nyingi zinazoingiliana, zikiwemo Sherehe, maelezo ya matukio, hati, nk. Wiki ni tofauti na blogu kwa kuwa data yake huboreshwa na watumiaji wengi na nyenzo anuwai huweza kuongozwa.

World Wide Web A service operating over the Internet that enables enormous volumes of content to be available by providing three key functions: a publishing format, HyperText Markup Language (HTML); an address for each piece of information (known as its Uniform Resource Locator or URL); and a means of transferring information, through the HyperText Transfer Protocol (http).

Tovuti: huduma inayofanya kazi kwenye mtandao, inayowezesha data tele kupatikana kwa kutoa huduma tatu muhimu: muundo wa uchapishaji, HTML, URL, na mbinu ya kutuma habari kupitia http.

YouTube A video-sharing website where users upload videos on any topic

of interest to them.

Bombalo (yu tiubu):wavuti wa kushirikishana video ambapo watumiaji huweka video za mada yoyote inayowapendeza.

ISOC-KE © 2012. All rights reserved
This Wiki was edited in partnership with UNESCO Regional Office for Eastern Africa and ISOC Kenya Chapter

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.